1 make shorter than originally intended; reduce or retrench in length or duration; "He shortened his trip due to illness" [ant: lengthen]
2 reduce in scope while retaining essential elements; "The manuscript must be shortened" [syn: abridge, foreshorten, abbreviate, cut, contract, reduce] [ant: elaborate]
3 make short or shorter; "shorten the skirt"; "shorten the rope by a few inches"
4 become short or shorter; "In winter, the days shorten" [ant: lengthen]
5 edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate; "bowdlerize a novel" [syn: bowdlerize, bowdlerise, expurgate, castrate]
- See .
Shorten (SHN) is a file format similar to ZIP, RAR, and StuffIt but is optimized for compressing audio data. It is a form of lossless data compression of files and is used to losslessly compress CD-quality audio files (44.1 kHz 16-bit stereo PCM). Shorten is no longer developed and more mature lossless audio codecs such as FLAC, MPEG-4 ALS, Monkey's Audio (APE), TTA, and WavPack have become more popular (especially due to early versions of Shorten not having support for seek tables). However, Shorten remains a common format due to the large number of legally tradable concert recordings in circulation that are encoded as Shorten files. Shorten files use the .SHN file extension.
Handling Shorten Files
Since few players or media writers attempt to decompress Shorten files, a standalone decompression program is usually required to convert to a different file format that those applications can handle. There are many such programs, only the most common are listed below.
- md5sum can apply the .MD5 checksum file that commonly accompanies Shorten files to ensure that the large .SHN file(s) have not been corrupted during transmission.
- Shorten (a program with the same name as the file format) is a command-line tool to convert between Shorten files and an uncompressed (typically .WAV file format that players and writers can handle. It has been updated as recently as 2007 and ported to various operating systems.
- A commonly recommended Windows program is mkw Audio Compression Tool (mkwACT). It combines the functionality of md5sum with that of the Shorten program.
- Shorten for MacIntosh is functionally similar to mkwACT, with a GUI. Versions of it exist for Linux et al.
- [ftp://svr-ftp.eng.cam.ac.uk/pub/reports/robinson_tr156.ps.Z Shorten Research Paper], written by the author of Shorten and detailing how it works.
- Trader's Little Helper Download page. Trader's Little helper converts shn to wav among other things
- etree.org Wiki article. etree.org is a trading site for authorized recordings of live performances; etree formerly used Shorten exclusively but is increasingly using FLAC.
- Shorten FAQ (note: If looking for software to play .shn files, you will probably be better served by the etree software page, as the Shorten FAQ has many broken and outdated links.)
- SoftSound Ltd.
- Lossless audio formats, a performance comparison of lossless audio formats, including Shorten.
- The Lossless Audio Blog Lossless Audio News & Information Site.
- A Small SHN and MD5 FAQ Includes a decent list of programs to handle Shorten files.
shorten in German: Shorten
shorten in Spanish: Shorten
shorten in French: Shorten
shorten in Dutch: SHN
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